Rebuttal of Coral CalciumOtto Warburg: (l883-l970)
Otto Warburg professed that the cancer problem could be solved if one could identify a biochemical difference between the energy-producing systems of normal cells (controlled growth) and cancer cells (uncontrolled growth.) His research with tissue slices 4 led to the discovery of oxygen-transferring enzymes in cellular respiration, and for this he won a Nobel Prize (l931). In l944 he won a second Nobel Prize for identifying the enzymes that transfer hydrogen in metabolism. But his research never showed that oxygen use by normal and cancer cells was different. What he did find was that cancer cells produced lactate from glucose in the presence of oxygen whereas normal cells only produced lactate from glucose in the absence of oxygen. This observation led him to conclude that energy metabolism in cancer cells was defective.
Although Warburg discovered some differences in metabolism between normal and cancer cells, research did not bear out what he considered to be the "primary cause of cancer," i.e., the replacement of respiration by fermentation
Over the next three decades research identified nearly all energy-producing metabolic pathways in both normal and cancer cells and showed that energy-producing systems in normal cells were the same as those found in cancer cells. Despite this, Warburg insisted until his death in l970 that the cause of cancer was "inferior" energy of anaerobic metabolism.
Cancer in Okinawa
Title: Carcinoma of the lung in Okinawa, Japan: with special reference to squamous cell carcinoma and squamous metaplasia. Author Nakazato I; Hirayasu T; Kamada Y; Tsuhako K; Iwamasa T
Address: Department of Pathology, Ryukyu University School of Medicine, Okinawa, Japan.
Source: Pathol Int, 47(10):659-72 1997 Oct
In Okinawa, a subtropical island in southern Japan, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), especially the well-differentiated form, is prevalent, while this form is relatively rare in both the mainland and other countries (e.g. United States of America). More patients with SCC from Okinawa, moreover, were positive for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (79%), and harbored HPV types 6, 16 and 18, in combination. On the other hand, less than 30% of the mainland patients were positive for HPV DNA by PCR. Those patients who were positive all harbored only one HPV type. Furthermore, in Okinawa, there were a significant number of cases with adenosquamous carcinoma, and they too were positive for HPV DNA. The SCC and the adenocarcinoma cells adjacent to the SCC component in these cases were also positive for HPV DNA, and such adenocarcinoma cells were enlarged in size with relatively wide cytoplasm. The authors postulate that HPV infects adenocarcinoma cells and changes them to enlarged cells, followed by squamous metaplasia. In this report, HPV DNA was transfected to adenocarcinoma cells (cultured cell lines) and this showed that HPV causes squamous metaplasia. In addition, aberrant expression of p53 was demonstrated in a large number of the SCC cases in Okinawa. The enlarged adenocarcinoma cells adjacent to the SCC components in adenosquamous carcinomas also showed aberrant expression of p53. The recent advances in the studies of anti-oncogenes, p53, etc. and oncogenes are outlined. It is to be noted that the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the lung have been studied in general, classifying lung tumors into two groups, namely, small cell carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC). However, because human lung cancer is represented by a wide variety of histologic types, molecular genetic studies according to a more detailed histological subclassification is needed.
Title: Relationship between fluoride concentration in drinking water and mortality rate from uterine cancer in Okinawa prefecture, Japan.
Author: Tomita Y; Ohsawa M; Mishiro Y; Itokazu T; Kojya S; Noda Y; Ikehara O; Aozasa K
Address Department of Pathology, Ryukyu University School of Medicine, Okinawa, Japan. Source J Epidemiol, 47(10):184-91 1996 Dec
Title: HLA and tumor necrosis factor beta gene polymorphisms in Okinawa lung cancer patients: comparative study with mainland Japan lung cancer patients.
Author: Hagihara M; Shimura T; Sato K; Genga K; Suzuki M; Tsuji K Address Department of Pathology, Ryukyu University School of Medicine, Okinawa, Japan.
Source: Hum Immunol, 47(10):95-100 1995 Jun
Title: Insufficient calcium and iron intakes among general female population in Japan, with special reference to inter-regional differences.
Author: Shimbo S; Imai Y; Tominaga N; Gotoh T; Yokota M; Inoguchi N; Ikeda Y; Watanabe T; Moon CS; Ikeda M Address: Department of Pathology, Ryukyu University School of Medicine, Okinawa, Japan.
Source: J Trace Elem Med Biol, 47(10):133-8 1996 Sep
Abstract: Dietary intakes of calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) were investigated in 227 women (mostly housewives) in 12 regions in Japan in 1991-1993 by the 24-hour food duplicate method. Nine regions out of 12 had been previously studied in 1977-1982. Utilizing Standard Food Composition database, mean Ca and Fe-intakes in 1991-1993 were estimated to be 602 and 10.4 mg/day, respectively; the former was barely sufficient and the latter was below sufficiency when compared with the Recommended Daily Allowance in Japan for pre-menopausal women. Ca- and Fe-intake did not increase in the 10-year period. Further analysis after classification of the women into three groups of farmers in Okinawa, farmers in Mainland Japan and urban residents showed that Ca and Fe insufficiency was most evident among Okinawa farmers. The leading Ca sources were milk, pulse, vegetables and fish-shellfish, but consumption of milk was generally low, especially among Okinawa farmers. Plus, vegetables and fish-shellfish were 3 major Fe sources; Okinawa farmers depended more on vegetables and less on fish-shellfish.
Title: Site-specific localization of Epstein-Barr virus in pharyngeal carcinomas.
Author: Kojya S; Itokazu T; Noda Y; Ezaki M; Tomita Y; Ohsawa M; Aozasa K
Address: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of the Ryukyus, Faculty of Medicine, Okinawa.
Source: Jpn J Cancer Res, 89(5):510-5 1998 May
In this study, the correlations of factors with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-association were investigated in 50 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), 61 with oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC), and 55 with hypopharyngeal carcinoma (HPC) in Okinawa and Osaka prefectures in Japan. The incidence of pharyngeal carcinoma in Okinawa was previously found to be higher than that in Osaka; the incidence of OPC was approximately 6 times higher and that of HPC was two times higher. The EBV genome was detected in the tumor cells of the present patients; 83% of the Okinawa and 92% of the Osaka NPC patients. The EBV genome was not detected in OPC or HPC. A univariate analysis showed that sex, the location of the tumor, histology, and the degree of lymphocytic infiltration correlated with the EBV-positive rate. A multivariate analysis revealed that only the location of the tumor was independently correlated with the EBV-positive rate. Histology and tumor size were factors affecting the prognosis of the patients with NPC. The NPC of poorly differentiated type frequently showed the EBV genome, and NPC with lymphocytic infiltration showed a more favorable prognosis compared to the other NPC types. These findings suggest that latent genes of EBV expressed in cancer cells might trigger a cytotoxic T cell reaction against the cancer.
Title: Tea consumption and lung cancer risk: a case-control study in Okinawa, Japan.
Author: Ohno Y; Wakai K; Genka K; Ohmine K; Kawamura T; Tamakoshi A; Aoki R; Senda M; Hayashi Y; Nagao K; et al Address: Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University School of Medicine.
Source: Jpn J Cancer Res, 86(11):1027-34 1995 Nov
To disclose the relationship between tea consumption and lung cancer risk, we analyzed the data from a case-control study conducted in Okinawa, Japan from 1988 to 1991. The analysis, based on 333 cases and 666 age-, sex- and residence-matched controls, provided the following major findings. (a) The greater the intake of Okinawa tea (a partially fermented tea), the smaller the risk, particularly in women. For females, the odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for those who consumed 1-4, 5-9, and 10 cups or more of Okinawan tea every day, relative to non-daily tea drinkers, were 0.77 (0.28-2.13), 0.77 (0.26-2.25) and 0.38 (0.12-1.18), respectively (trend: P = 0.032). The corresponding odds ratios for males were 0.85 (0.45-1.55), 0.85 (0.45-1.56) and 0.57 (0.31-1.06) (trend: P = 0.053). (b) The risk reduction by Okinawan tea consumption was detected mainly in squamous cell carcinoma. Daily tea consumption significantly decreased the risk of squamous cell carcinoma in males and females, the odds ratios being 0.50 (95% confidence interval 0.27-0.93) and 0.08 (0.01-0.68), respectively. These findings suggest a protective effect of tea consumption against lung cancer in humans.
A group of studies on the genetics of Okinawans show that they live longer because they have better genes. There are conflicting studies on nutrition, and there aren't any of them that mention calcium, coral or otherwise in the medical literature.
They may live longer because they eat less, work until they are in their 80s, and live in a basically unpolluted world.
REICH ON THE ORIGIN OF AIDS
Reich, Carl J. A series of unpublished papers on ionic calcium deficiency. 4039 Comanche Road N.W., Calgary, Alberta T2L 0N9. (Don't write to him, he died a few years ago after losing his medical license in Alberta and California)
More science - less rocks on the brains
Diet and calcium (Editorial):
Annals of Internal Medicine: 126:553-55 (1997) - Coe FL; Parks JH; Favus MJ
The study by Curhan and colleagues in this issue adds its welcome note to a flood of negatives about low-calcium diets. Women consuming such diets seem more at risk for stones than those with higher calcium intakes, perhaps, as Curhan and colleagues speculate, because of reciprocal hyperoxaluria. The same inverse association between dietary calcium and risk for stone formation has been reported among men. These findings are not of direct importance to patients who already form stones, because current treatment recommendations in standard sources already lean toward medication and away from low-calcium diets. The more compelling problem may be among family members of stone formers, who decrease their calcium intake in order to ward off a familial "curse." On the basis of Curhan and colleagues' study and its predecessor, one might advise against such actions. In addition, one should lean toward adequate calcium intake (at least 800 mg/d and perhaps more) in stone formers receiving thiazide. Curhan and colleagues' study also makes clear that calcium excess from supplements may cause trouble. Women who use supplements may be at higher risk for stones, perhaps because of timing. If supplementary calcium is taken between meals, oxalate absorption may not be properly suppressed, whereas boluses of calcium will be absorbed and cause urinary supersaturations to peak. Whatever the underlying mechanisms, one might take away the thought that dietary calcium sources are potentially safer, and certainly tastier, than supplementary sources for stone forming patients.
Comparison of dietary calcium with supplemental calcium and other nutrients as factors affecting the risk for kidney:
Annals of Internal Medicine: 126:497-504 (1997) - Curhan GC; Willett WC; Speizer FE; Spiegelman D; Stampfer MJ
BACKGROUND: Calcium intake is believed to play an important role in the formation of kidney stones, but data on the risk factors for stone formation in women are limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between intake of dietary and supplemental calcium and the risk for kidney stones in women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with 12-year follow-up. SETTING: Several U.S. states. PARTICIPANTS: 91,731 women participating in the Nurses' Health Study I who were 34 to 59 years of age in 1980 and had no history of kidney stones. MEASUREMENTS: Self-administered food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess diet in 1980, 1984, 1986, and 1990. The main outcome measure was incident symptomatic kidney stones. RESULTS: During 903,849 person-years of follow-up, 864 cases of kidney stones were documented. After adjustment for potential risk factors, intake of dietary calcium was inversely associated with risk for kidney stones and intake of supplemental calcium was positively associated with risk. The relative risk for stone formation in women in the highest quintile of dietary calcium intake compared with women in the lowest quintile was 0.65 (95% Ci, 0.50 to 0.83). The relative risk in women who took supplemental calcium compared with women who did not was 1.20 (Ci, 1.02 to 1.41). In 67% of women who took supplemental calcium, the calcium either was not consumed with a meal or was consumed with meals whose oxalate content was probably low. Other dietary factors showed the following relative risks among women in the highest quintile of intake compared with those in the lowest quintile: sucrose, 1.52 (Ci, 1.18 to 1.96); sodium, 1.30 (Ci, 1.05 to 1.62);'fluid, 0.61 (CI, 0.48 to 0.78); and potassium, 0.65 (Ci, 0.51 to 0.84). CONCLUSIONS: High intake of dietary calcium appears to decrease risk for symptomatic kidney stones, whereas intake of supplemental calcium may increase risk. Because dietary calcium reduces absorption of oxalate, the apparent different effects caused by the type of calcium may be associated with the timing of calcium ingestion relative to the amount of oxalate consumed. However, other factors present in dairy products (the major source of dietary calcium) could be responsible for the decreased risk seen with dietary calcium.
Gastrointestinal absorption of calcium from milk and calcium salts:
N Engl J Med: 317:532-6 (1987) - Sheikh MS; Santa Ana CA; Nicar MJ; Fordtran JS et al.:
Calcium absorption from carbonate, acetate, lactate, gluconate and citrate salts of calcium, and from whole milk, was similar in fasting healthy young subjects: about 30-40%.
High dietary calcium intakes reduce zinc absorption and balance in humans
Am J Clin Nutr: 65:6:1803-9 (1997) - Wood RJ; Zheng JJ:
Optimal calcium intakes of 37.5 mmol(1500 mg)/d have been proposed for elderly people. We investigated the effects of calcium supplementation on zinc absorption and balance in 18 relatively healthy, postmenopausal women aged 59-86 y. All subjects received a standardized basal diet of typical foods supplying 269 mumol (17.6 mg) Zn/d and 22.2 mmol (890 mg) Ca/d during the 36-d study. In two of three experimental periods, an additional 11.7 mmol (468 mg) Ca/d as either milk or an inorganic calcium phosphate supplement was provided. Net zinc absorption and zinc balance were significantly reduced by approximately 2 mg/d during both high-calcium treatments. In a second study, conducted in a separate group of men and women aged 21-69 y, a whole-gut lavage, zinc-absorption test was used to investigate the acute effect of a 15-mmol CaCO3 (600 mg Ca) supplement, with and without extra zinc, on zinc absorption from a single test meal supplying 111.7 mumol (7.3 mg) Zn. Zinc absorption was reduced significantly by 50% when the calcium supplement was given with the meal. Inclusion of an extra 119.3 mumol (7.8 mg) Zn as part of a calcium supplement offset the detrimental effect of calcium on zinc absorption. Our findings suggest that high-calcium diets can reduce net zinc absorption and balance and may increase the zinc requirement in adult humans.
Dietary habits and mortality in 11,000 vegetarians and health conscious people: results of a 17 year follow up:
BMJ: 313:775-79 (1996) - Key T; Thorogood M; Appleby PN; Burr ML:
Objective. To investigate the association of dietary habits with mortality in a cohort of vegetarians and other health conscious people. Design. Observational study. Setting: United Kingdom. Subjects: 4336 men and 6435 women recruited through health food shops, vegetarian societies, and magazines. Main outcome measures: Mortality ratios for vegetarianism and for daily versus less than daily consumption of wholemeal bread, bran cereals, nuts or dried fruit, fresh fruit, and raw salad in relation to all cause mortality and mortality from ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, all malignant neoplasms, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and breast cancer. Results. 2064 (19'/.) subjects smoked, 4627 (43%) were vegetarian, 6699 (62%) ate wholemeal bread daily, 2948 (27%) ate bran cereals daily, 4091 (38%) ate nuts or dried fruit daily, 9304 (77%) ate fresh fruit daily, and 4105 (38%) ate raw salad daily. After a mean of 16.8 years follow up, there were 1343 deaths before age 80. Overall the cohort had a mortality about half that of the general population. Within the cohort, daily consumption of fresh fruit was associated with significantly reduced mortality from ischaemic heart disease (rate ratio adjusted for smoking 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.60 to 0.97)), cerebrovascular disease (0.68 (0.47 to 0.98)), and for all causes combined (0.79 (0.70 to 0.90)). Conclusions. In this cohort of health conscious individuals, daily consumption of fresh fruit is associated with a reduced mortality from ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and all causes combined. (Now which population of vegetarians did Mr. Robert Barefoot study when he said that vegetarians died 9 years earlier than meat eaters?)
A review of calcium preparations.:
Nutr Rev: 52:7:221-32 (1994) - Levenson DI; Bockman RS:
There are more than a dozen commonly prescribed calcium supplements and hundreds of different formulations commercially available. Numerous factors need to be considered when selecting a calcium preparation. Physical properties such as solubility, interference from coingested medications or foodstuffs, dosage, and timing can all affect the bioavailability of calcium. Medical conditions such as lactose intolerance, impaired gastric acid secretion, and high risk profile for kidney stone formation may impact on selection of a calcium supplement. This article will review the available literature and make general recommendations for the optimal use of calcium preparations.